Forest 61 - Turkish Pine

Pinus brutia

Foliage and seed cones of Pinus brutia Photo not from the Arboretum Pinus brutia pollen cones Photo not from the Arboretum

Other common names  

Calabrian pine; East Mediterranean pine; Turkish: kizilcam.

Origin of the species name

Pinus is the classical Latin for pine; brutia is probably derived from Brutium, now Calabria, in southern Italy.



Date planted

November 2010


Trees of this species can attain full height in 50 years.

Pinus brutia tree in Arykand, Turkey Photo not from the Arboretum

General description

This is a medium-size evergreen tree. The bark is orange-red, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, and thin and flaky up higher. The needles are up to 18cm long, bright to dark green. The cones are stout, heavy and hard. Height 25m Spread 15m.

Natural distribution and habitat

The species is primarily native to Turkey and far East Greece and to the Crimea, Caucasus coast, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Crete and Cyprus. It forms pure stands or is part of coniferous and deciduous drought tolerant forests. They grow from sea level up to 1500m, with mild, moist winters and hot dry summers.

Conservation status

It has been classified as being not threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (1998) but it is now felt that this needs a reappraisal.

Planting pattern

Planted in lines along steep contours. Turkish pine was a prominent landmark tree at the ANZAC battle site at Gallipoli, Turkey. Cones from this and the closely related species, Pinus halepensis, were brought back to Australia, and plants grown from the seeds have been planted at numerous memorials. On 12 November 2010, Her Excellency Quentin Bryce, Governor-General of Australia, planted a Pinus brutia in Forest 61. Another 101 Turkish pines were planted by Mr Jon Stanhope, ACT Chief Minister, Mr John King, President of the ACT Branch of the RSL, and representatives of the RSL and other organisations.


This species is a valued forest tree in the north-eastern Mediterranean area.

Further reading

Farjon, A (2010) A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Brill.